Traveling by Trolley in Mississippi: Gulfport – Biloxi

Today’s post is Chapter 3 in our series re-printing Frank Brooks’ “Travelling by Trolley in Mississippi: Stories about Streetcars.” View other posts in the series at the “Streetcars” tab. You might also be interested in comparing the streetcar map for Biloxi shown here with that shown in Thomas Rossell’s post from earlier this year, “Biloxi Trolley Line Routes.”


GULFPORT: Such early Gulfport worthies as Mr. Elder, John Lang, J.B. Howie, Captain Joseph T. Jones, Judge D.M. Graham, Dr. A.J. Price, Bert Jones and William Gorenflo alongside Gulfport’s first streetcar in 1904.

Having lived in Gulfport during the early 1960’s, I used to imagine what fun it must have been to ride one of the big trolleys along the Gulf shoreline at sunset! However, I came along too late in history to enjoy that pleasure. In fact, I never even saw the cars except in a few pictures. My corresponding friend, the late Steve Maguire, one of America’s foremost authorities on this country’s trolleys, considered the Gulf Coast cars to be real interurban cars. He identified them as being exactly like the cars used on the International Railway’s Buffalo-Lockport (N.Y.) line. Steve wrote me that he once saw two identical cars running in Buenos Aires and this made him wonder if the Gulfport-Biloxi passenger cars finally ended their days in that South American setting! He never found for sure.

Unfortunately, the period of passenger service on the Gulf Coast interurban facility spanned but two decades–1905 through 1926. History reveals that on January 1, 1926, bus service was substituted for the trolleys between Gulfport and Pass Christian. Local streetcar service within the city of Gulfport ended also at that time. However, trolleys continued to connect Gulfport with Biloxi, and they also served local routes in the city of Biloxi for a few more years. Segment by segment the remaining lines were dismantled between 1930 and 1932. The local cars still operating in Biloxi ran out their last miles in 1932. Thus ended the too-short life of the Gulfport and Mississippi Coast Traction Company with the exception of a local “juice” freight operation in Biloxi which lasted until 1949. During the G. & M.C.’s most extensive period of operations, its 30 miles of track saw 27 passenger cars and 2 freight motors at work.

GULFPORT: Car 2 in local service on unpaved 11th Street

The Gulfport and Mississippi Coast Traction Company surely had its share of problems with those awful Gulf of Mexico hurricanes which have blown ashore from time to time. Frequently they washed out whole sections of the roadbed, and after the 1915 hurricane, the entire line had to be rebuilt! However, the storms weren’t the only problems besetting the company. Some of its worst problems developed at the very beginning of its history and were related to the line’s construction. Ray M. Thompson, writing in Down South magazine in 1963, described some of these problems. He wrote that between Biloxi and Gulfport the track laying crews working from the east and from the west met at what is now the beautiful Edgewater Mall. However, the person who owned that particular property had said he would not permit the track to be connected across his land. So it was that the foreman called the track laying crews at midnight and they laid the necessary track in unbelievable silence shrouded in the darkness of blackest night! The next morning the clever railway company officials rather calmly turned over to lawyers the resultant problem of justifying the clandestine maneuver as a “pro bono publico” action! One of the many interesting deeds related to securing the right of way in this same area is signed by Mrs. Jefferson Davis and her daughter. Evidently they were happy to have the trolley line run near the back of their lovely beachfront mansion “Beauvoir.”

BILOXI. Freight motor 501 resting between calls at local seafood canning plants in 1940.

The city of Biloxi has recently resurrected from a junk dealer a mule-drawn streetcar which ran in that city for several years beginning in 1890. During 1982, this old car is being restored for public display in the Vieux Marche area of the city. The early mule-drawn transportation system grew eventually into the Biloxi Electric Railway and Power Company, which, in 1905, was absorbed into the proposed Gulfport and Mississippi Coast Traction Company. The Biloxi utility was sold for $200,000 in 1905 to the new company, with Gulfport’s primary leader and benefactor, J.T. Jones, assuming the outstanding bonded indebtedness.

On the opposite end of the line, trouble was also experienced as the company sought to lay tracks into Pass Christian. Mr. E. Davis McCutchon, presently of Pass Christian, quoted several old-time “Pass” residents as saying collectively. “No, we will not have streetcars passing directly in front of our beautiful beachfront homes!” So it was that at the east of Pass Christian, the cars swung away from the beach, traveled about 1/6 mile inland, and then continued on Second Street to the end of the line a little west of the downtown area of Pass Christian. Mayor John H. Lang and a few other forward-looking Pass citizens proved successful in reaching this concession largely because Mr. Lang gave the line the right of way through his own property between the beachfront and Second Street. In his “Historical Sketches of Harrison County.” Mr. Lang wrote these words shortly after that portion of the trolley line commenced (1907): “To illustrate the good that has been done by building the trolley line, we have only to look at the prices of beachfront lands in 1902 and at present in 1907. I tried to sell beachfront lots in 1902 at $2.50 per front foot. In 1907 these lots are bringing $30.00 and $35.00 per front foot!” The Pass Christian-Gulfport tracks were relocated inland adjacent to the L&N Railroad in 1925 due to recurring washouts of beachfront trackage.

BILOXI: This old motor is No. 502, which served Biloxi seafood factories along with No. 501 until July 18, 1949.

Like Biloxi, Gulfport also had an antecedent trolley operation. In 1904, a line 1-1/2 miles in length was built from Union Station to the end of the once-famous pier of which the present East Pier is a surviving remnant. This short line was quite successful in transporting people from downtown to the pavilion at the end of the pier, and it was eventually absorbed into the Gulfport and Mississippi Coast Traction Company. Again, Captain Joseph T. Jones was the principal investor in this line as well as in the 1,000 square foot entertainment, dancing and refreshment center. According to an old newspaper article I read, there were 44 sailing schooners from all over the world waiting in Gulfport to take on their cargoes of lumber the first day the “pier” trolley line operated!

An interesting article shared with me by Gulf Coast historian James Stevens, was published in the Daily Herald on September 26, 1912. This delightful piece of writing is a travelogue describing the trolley ride from Pass Christian through Gulfport and on to Biloxi. To read the article makes one feel regretful, indeed, that the old G. & M.C. was forced into premature oblivion by the encroachment of the automobile and bus. One wishes the efficient, economical electric car could be returned to our streets and countryside!

From Trolly track, Biloxi, Miss. Courtesy of the Mississippi Department of Archives and History, Cooper Postcard Collection.


ABOUT THE AUTHOR:  Frank A. Brooks, Jr. has loved trains and streetcars for as long as he can remember.  He and his wife Jo Anne are parents of 2 children and grandparents of 4.  During his active ministry of  43 years in the Presbyterian Church he served in Kentucky, Mississippi, Virginia and Arkansas.  In retirement, Dr. and Mrs. Brooks live in her hometown Corinth, MS.

Categories: Biloxi, Gulf Coast, Gulfport, Pass Christian

9 replies

  1. This is fascinating to read about. Great transit concept, but probably the devil to maintain due to weather and other maintenance i$$ue$. In the ’90’s Jackson, MS, has a trolley service (motorized?) but it is no longer a part of JATRAN. The Fondren area now runs a few for private parties and themed tours. Just like anything else – including preserving our historically significant buildings – it’s allllllllll about the money!


  2. Dear Mr. EL, please correct my spelling of maintenance and put the “e” in trolly – trolley for me. Thanks! You are amazing at keeping us informed. Thank you so much for all the time and love you put in to your site!


  3. I have serious doubt about the accuracy of the postcard’s description of the tracks as being a part of the Biloxi trolley system. There is too much elevation shown in the card for the photo to have been taken anywhere near Biloxi, and, in addition, the the maps of the trolley lines don’t locate them anywhere near any substantial river , bayou or canal. In my opinion, that photo couldn’t have been taken in Biloxi.


  4. You raise an interesting point. Is it possible it was taken somewhere else on the interurban line, maybe down around Pass Christian? Another discrepancy is that the trees don’t look coastal either–no pines or live oaks? You may be right that it’s nowhere on the Coast.


  5. Came across this little article in the Vicksburg Evening Post, June 20, 1907, p.1:


    From the Mississippi coast comes definite information that the long-standing feud between Capt. J.T. Jones, president of the Gulf Coast Traction Company, and the citizens of Pass Christian, has been declared off, and plans are now being perfected to extend the inter-urban railway system from Gulfport to Pass Christian and thence to Bay St. Louis.

    The feud was provoked by the desire of the traction company to lay its tracks along the famous beach drive, popularly known as “the Riveria of America” and by common consent considered the most beautiful driveway on the Mexican Gulf. The citizens of Pass Christian fought vigorously against the desecration, and finally won their point, despite the fact that the town council had granted the corporation a franchise.

    A compromise has been arranged whereby the company will lay its tracks through Pass Christian along Second Avenue, a distance of about 300 yards from the water front, the street to be widened for this purpose. Construction work will probably be under way during the latter part of the month.


  6. Gulfport and Mississippi Coast Traction – the best for last (so to speak)

    According to the US Census Bureau tallies for 1907, the G&MC operated 24.1 miles of line and carried 1,899,761 passengers in that year.

    Thereafter (1912, 1917), it was grouped together with “the rest” of Mississippi’s streetcar systems in the Census Bureau surveys. My “best guesses” for system length and annual passenger traffic thereafter:

    1912: 32.8 miles, very roughly 2.5 million passengers.
    1917: 32.8 miles, very roughly 2.5 million passengers.

    Now for the interesting part. Between 1922 and 1931, the G&MC reported to the ICC, and I had the pleasure of examining these reports (and many others!) at the National Archives research center (College Park, MD).

    1922: 32.8 miles, 2,067,660 passengers.

    (no report for 1923)

    1924: 32.4 miles, 1,769,212 passengers.
    1925: 32.1 miles, 2,479,824 passengers.
    1926: (either I skipped this one or it was “not in the carton.”)
    1927: 6.6 miles (“in Biloxi”), 746,111 passengers.
    1928: 6.6 miles, 624,008 passengers.
    1929: 6.6 miles, 664,456 passengers.
    1930: 6.6 miles, 530,513 passengers.
    1931: 4.6 miles, 396,169 passengers. (All trackage “west of Rayner Street” was closed.)

    The large increase in passengers from 1924 to 1925 was accompanied by a great increase in car-miles: 533,616 to 1,009,843. Passenger revenue also increased, from $118,360.39 to $159,706.00 – but not in proportion to the increased operating cost.

    It’s clear that the entire interurban was closed all at once, and that the Biloxi – Gulfport segment did not continue operation to 1930. One reason for this might have been construction of the seawall (1926-1928).

    The last day for Biloxi streetcars was September 24, 1932, when the Back Bay and Point Cadet lines were replaced by bus. The West Beach line was replaced earlier (perhaps during 1931).

    The last for the electric freight operation in Biloxi was August 26, 1949.

    Well, I hope all of this will prove of interest to someone!

    Liked by 2 people

    • It’s definitely interesting to me, and I can attest that these streetcar posts continue to be among the top viewed posts year after year, so I think your updating of Dr. Brooks publication will be of great interest to many MissPres readers. Thanks for digging into this fascinating period in our urban history, and thanks for taking the time to share your knowledge!



  1. Travelling by Trolley in Mississippi: Laurel « Preservation in Mississippi

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: Logo

You are commenting using your account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.

%d bloggers like this: